Activate your 30-day free trial to unlock unlimited reading. Activate your 30-day free trial to continue reading. These slides argue that pharmacy marketing channels are not limited to distribution channels. They include information, funding and more.
Download to take your learning offline and on the go Instant access to millions of e-books, audiobooks, magazines, podcasts and more. The SlideShare family just grew. Enjoy access to millions of e-books, audiobooks, magazines and more from Scribd. Krawczyk and other industry observers say drug manufacturers and payers have not yet grasped the complexities of the distribution channels through which specialized products flow from manufacturer to patient.
Pharmaceutical companies are interested in benefiting from the efficient movement of products to patients. Payers tend to be interested in the channels that offer these products at the lowest price and these interests are not necessarily aligned. Pharmaceutical manufacturers develop products and transfer them to the market to sell them for profit. Because each pharmaceutical company invests heavily and is legally responsible for the safety of the drugs it produces, it usually decides which supply chain route is best for each product.
For much of the 20th century, manufacturers relied on large, centralized wholesale distributors to manage the supply chain. Today, this model is still the most efficient for a large percentage of products. However, with improvements in transportation, changes in health insurance coverage, and the explosion of drugs for rare disorders, manufacturers are increasingly shipping direct to national retail pharmacy and hospital chains, mail-order pharmacies, and specialty pharmacies. They also distribute products directly to government buyers, such as the Veterans Administration (VA), AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) and Vaccines for Children (VFC).
Efficiency is the primary goal of large distribution centers, which manage and coordinate the delivery of bulk products to smaller regional centers, which are then shipped to individual supplier locations. Without wholesale distributors, manufacturers would have to maintain separate relationships with each supplier from coast to coast and coordinate the delivery of their products, which would not only be a costly logistical nightmare, but, most importantly, would likely create inventory shortages and compromise quality controls that ensure that medicines are transported safely. Every day, distributors deliver 15 million prescription drugs and health products to hundreds of thousands of state and federally licensed healthcare providers. Some wholesalers sell to a wide range of potential customers, while others specialize in selling certain products (for example,.
Many distribution companies also offer a variety of specialized services, including electronic ordering, specialty drug distribution, pharmaceutical repackaging, drug buyback programs, and reimbursement support. Gross national product grew at an extraordinary rate. After the end of world war ii (1939-194), inventories of goods began to accumulate as market demand stabilized. The costs of inactive inventories (goods that cannot be immediately converted into cash) increased exponentially.
Advances in production and distribution methods focused on cost containment, inventory control and asset management. Marketers soon shifted from a production orientation to a sales orientation. Attitudes such as a good product will sell itself or we can sell whatever we do regressed. Marketers faced the need to expand sales and advertising expenses to persuade individual customers to buy their specific brands.
The classic four-P classification of marketing mix variables (product, price, promotion, and place) emerged as a marketing principle. Distribution issues were relegated to the domain of the place. Failure to build a good distribution channel for a new specialized pharmaceutical product can lead to poor acceptance by prescribers. Drastic changes in the pharmaceutical industry will require corresponding changes in its supply chain.
Longer distribution channels can also mean fewer profits: each middleman charges a manufacturer for their service. Providing contractual efficiency, routinization, variety or customer trust creates value in distribution channels. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are developed and produced at a manufacturing site, transferred to wholesale distribution centers, transported to suppliers, and then administered to patients. There are several types of risks associated with exchanges in distribution channels, including uncertainty of need, market uncertainty and transaction uncertainty.
In that condition, the distributor must know the distributor of that product and will make the product available to the retailer. Genentech says these specialized distributors and wholesalers have agreed not to distribute bevacizumab through secondary wholesalers. To understand current specialty channels, it may be useful to place them in the context of modern drug distribution in general, starting with wholesale. Sophisticated computer systems track each pill, capsule and tablet from its point of production at a pharmaceutical manufacturer to its point of sale at points of sale around the world.
Of course, there are many variations in this basic structure, given the variations in geography, type of drug, and the commercial relationship between distribution centers and suppliers. The roles performed by marketing brokers simultaneously meet the needs of all channel members in a variety of ways. However, the introduction of 250 wholesale distributors in the pharmaceutical channel reduces the number of annual transactions to around 26 million. This figure shows the many physical, financial, and transactional factors that specialty pharmaceutical manufacturers need to consider when designing channels through which products will reach patients.
During the era of consolidation, the attempt meant the simultaneous application of multiple solutions to the challenges presented by pharmaceutical distribution. . .